How Is CBD Oil Made?

CBD Oil

Whether it is in oils, softgels, or added to topical products, CBD oil has quite a long list of benefits, which has made it one of the most used health products of the last four years. To get those benefits in a usable, concentrated form, the CBD oil itself must first be separated from harvested hemp. If you have been an avid CBD oil patron for a while, you may have asked yourself “How exactly is CBD oil made?”

Most CBD users know that their CBD — which stands for cannabidiol — is a product of hemp, the legal form of cannabis. CBD oil is the final-form product of hemp extraction to get the concentrated oil that provides the health benefits that CBD usage is known for, leaving behind the unwanted plant parts. In a nutshell, CBD oil extraction involves harvesting the desire constituents of the hemp plant (CBD, plus certain other minor cannabinoids and terpenes) while removing the undesirable byproducts (waxes, fats, lipids and chlorophyll).

How Is CBD Oil Made From Hemp?

In a way, CBD oil is not something you “make” as much as it is something you extract and clean up from its raw natural form. Almost all CBD oil is extracted from hemp that has been harvested, dried, and ground up. Once the hemp plants are first harvested, they are dried to remove moisture and prevent mold. This is done by either by hanging the plants or putting them in an industrial dryer to get their moisture content down around 12%. Next, the dried hemp plants are either chopped or ground up. This breaks down the tough plant fiber and makes the CBD more accessible for extraction. Once the hemp has undergone these initial steps, there are several main methods, each with their own pros and cons, to get the CBD oil out of the dried hemp biomass.

CO2 Extraction

CBD Oil

CO2, or Carbon dioxide extraction, is an expensive, lower-volume method that extracts CBD and other desirable hemp components without the use of harmful solvents that can leave residues or be harmful to your health. CO2 acts as a “separator” that isolates CBD oil from other components present in the hemp biomass. Because CO2 has properties of both a gas and a liquid, it flows easily through the hemp biomass and pulls more of the beneficial compounds out than most other extraction methods. The other advantage of this is it uses no harmful solvents, simply highly compressed carbon dioxide that evaporates harmlessly after the extraction is complete. The CO2 is chilled to extremely low temperatures and pushed through the dried hemp biomass in a sealed container at high pressure. The cannabinoids and terpenes stick to the CO2, and travel to a sealed container where they collect in liquid form. When the container is opened and the pressure removed, the remaining CO2 evaporates, and the extracted oil is left at the bottom of the vessel.

Ethanol Extraction

Another way to separate CBD oil from the hemp flower is using alcohol as the solvent. One of the most common solvents for CBD extraction is ethanol, which is simply high-proof alcohol. Alcohol is mixed in with the dried hemp biomass and pulls the CBD out into the liquid. Alcohol can be used to extract almost any botanical, but it leaves a lot of the desired component behind, while tending to indiscriminately pull other components out at the same time that may not be wanted. Alcohol CBD extraction works by “soaking up” the CBD from the dried hemp material into the liquid, allowing it to be poured off. The alcohol can then be heated up and boiled off, since alcohol has a much lower boiling point than CBD, so it evaporates at lower temperatures. Once the alcohol is boiled off, the CBD oil remains behind. Alcohol extraction requires almost no specialized equipment, simply high-proof alcohol (usually 95% or higher grain alcohol) and some mixing containers. Proper ethanol extraction entails an additional step to remove the alcohol so that little or no alcohol remains behind in the finished CBD oil. Some sellers of CBD oil simply leave the alcohol behind as part of an oral tincture.

Hydrocarbon Extraction

CBD Oil

Hydrocarbon extraction is very similar to ethanol extraction, only instead of using ethanol, it uses hydrocarbons like propane, butane, or hexane as the solvent. These options are preferred for higher volume extraction over alcohol because they are all in gas form and can pull CBD from hemp more efficiently than liquid ethanol can. The chemical bond very well to cannabinoids like CBD, allowing them to separate it very quickly and efficiently from the plant material when under pressure. The downside to hydrocarbon extraction is, just like using a propane grill, they can leave behind unpleasant taste and chemicals. They require specialized equipment to remove the hydrocarbons from the oil after the extraction process is complete. Because they are flammable gases, they require additional safety measures, and can be harsher on the delicate cannabinoids and terpenes. They are the primary method used in large-scale CBD extraction because of the cost savings and extraction efficiencies.

Oil Extraction

A favorite amongst DIY CBD extractors, oil extraction uses heat and an off the shelf vegetable oil. This extraction is performed by basically cooking the hemp flower in hot oil. The flower is cooked in oil — usually a thick carrier oil. The most common type of carrier oil used seems to be olive oil or MCT (coconut) oil, but even olive oil will work.

The olive or MCT oil absorbs the CBD oil, creating a combination of the carrier and the CBD. This is highly inefficient, as it leaves a lot of the CBD behind, and pulls a lot of unwanted plant waxes and oils along with the CBD oil. It is only used for small batch extractions by hobbyists, and is not efficient enough for commercial extraction, but can be used at home with a stovetop and cooking pan to provide a small amount of partially-purified CBD oil from hemp. The carrier oil will still be mixed in with the CBD oil and is not removed before consumption.

Purifying the CBD Oil

After extraction, CBD oil will often contain several impurities like the fats from the hemp plant. For retail use, these impurities need to be removed, as they dilute the CBD content and give it an unpleasant “green” taste, much like grass clippings or leaves. There are two steps to remove impurities, winterization and filtration. Both are critical to concentrate the CBD potency, as well as removing the non-beneficial parts of the plant extract.

Winterization and Filtration

CBD Oil

The most common types of impurities present in freshly extracted CBD oil are plant fats and resins. The fats, in particular, tend to solidify at room temperature or slightly lower. When the raw oil is chilled, these fats rise to the top, like putting a soup or stew in the refrigerator. These unwanted plant byproducts are typically greenish or white in color and include plant lipids and chlorophyll in the case of hemp. Winterization is a process where the CBD extract is subjected to freezing temperatures to make these unwanted components separate out from the valuable cannabinoid oil and terpenes.

After ethanol extraction, the fats and resins rise to the top of the heterogeneous mixture. The mixture is then cooled further to allow the fats and resins to consolidate at the top before filtration. They can then be scraped off to remove the heaviest amounts, leaving the purer CBD oil underneath. The oil is then typically sent through a filter, similar to a giant coffee filter, that further strains out the unwanted components and allows the alcohol-and-CBD mixture to settle to the bottom where it can then be further processed to remove the alcohol, leaving only liquid CBD oil behind. Some companies submit their own to multiple passes through filters to more fully remove the plant waxes and lipids. The final mix is then put in a specialized pied of equipment called a rotary evaporator (rotovap) that pressurizes the liquid to lower the boiling point and evaporates off the remainder of the alcohol for final processing.

How Does CBDPure Extract and Make Their CBD Oil?

Here at CBDPure, we use only CO2 extraction. We use lower pressures in our CO2 extraction equipment (subcritical extraction) to avoid damaging the delicate cannabinoid molecule. No additional co-solvents or hydrocarbons are used, our oil extraction is 100% CO2. Our winterization and filtration process maintains not only the highest CBD levels, but also preserves terpenes and minor cannabinoids as well as other phytonutrients. We do not mix our CBD oil with foreign carrier oils like alcohol or coconut (MCT) oil, electing instead to use only natural hempseed oil from the same hemp plant. Our CBD oil is always the purest and closest to nature that we can make, and all our minimally processed CBDPure products follow the same extraction and purity standards we have used since 2017.

Buying CBD in Hawaii

The island state of Hawaii has taken a harder stance towards CBD than many states, despite its laid back island nature. The Hawaii Health Department states that any supplement or food containing added CBD is considered “adulterated”, but has no specific policy of enforcement. The state had approved an industrial hemp pilot program for hemp growers in 2014, and an updated law, SB-1353 was vetoed and never replaced after passage of the 2018 Farm Bill. Many shops on the islands sell direct to consumers. Nobody has been prosecuted in Hawaii for selling or possessing CBD oil. As long as CBD products sold within the state are derived from hemp (< 0.3% THC) no action has been taken on possession, though some brick and mortar retailers have reported getting warnings, but no fines.

CBD Oil In Hawaii State
CBD in Hawaii

Hawaii does have a developed medical marijuana legal framework, and approved patients can purchase THC and CBD products through the state’s Medical Cannabis Registry Program. State Health Director Bruce Anderson has publicly stated that his department would seek to regulate CBD as a dietary supplement in the upcoming year, but no legislation has been introduced for that yet.

CBDPure products available for delivery to ship to Hawaiian residents:

CBD Oil

CBD Oil
 

CBD Softgels

CBDPure Softgels 750
 

Muscle & Joint

CBD Cream
 

Pet Products

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CBD Laws in Florida

Relevant Laws: 2018 Agriculture Improvement Act, SB 1030, SB 182

Buying CBD in Florida

Florida is considered a very permissive state when it comes to hemp and hemp-derived products like CBD. In 2016, voters overwhelmingly voted to approve “Amendment 2”, which greatly expanded Floridians access to both hemp and medical marijuana. In 2019, the Florida legislature passed SB 1020 unanimously, which specifically legalized all CBD products and “hemp extracts” that were derived from legal hemp plants, and excluded them from regulation as controlled substances. It also expanded opportunities for farmers to grow hemp within the state under hemp cultivation licenses.

CBD Oil In Florida State
CBD in Florida

Florida does require local producers to get independent 3rd-party lab test to confirm their CBD products are below 0.3% THC and contain no contaminants. CBD products are widely available from government-licensed dispensaries, retail stores, and online merchants that ship to Florida.

CBDPure Products That Can be Shipped to Florida:

CBD Oil

CBD Oil
 

CBD Softgels

CBDPure Softgels 750
 

Muscle & Joint

CBD Cream
 

Pet Products

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Why We Do Not Make CBD Gummies

CBD Gummies

As the public interest in CBD has exploded, more and more niche products have been popping up all over the CBD landscape. You can hardly turn your head without running into some new, exciting way to ingest or apply CBD, or see some brand-new product that suddenly somebody in a meeting somewhere decided would be improved by adding CBD to it ( CBD toothpicks anyone?).

At CBDPure, we built our business on pure CBD oils. Grow the finest organic hemp we can, extract it gently using only cold-pressed CO2 extraction, filter it to desired potency, add no ingredients, preservatives, or anything else not found in nature growing in the hemp plant, and then bottle and store it at our own facility. A simple approach really, and it served us, and our loyal clients, very well for years.

But, some people don’t like the taste of natural hemp (it can be a little bitter-tasting to those unused to it), and oil droppers can be a little messy, or sometimes you want CBD on a specific aching joint or muscle, but don’t want to get out the oral drops. There are always just a couple tiny improvements that seem easy to make, while always trying to give the customers what they want. We understand, so in the face of what seemed to be very reasonable requests by our clients, we expanded our range a bit.

CBD Softgels

Instead of having just 3 potency options (300 mg, 600 mg, and 1000 mg CBD oil) of our world-renowned CBDPure oil, we added softgels, for convenience and high-potency daily dosing. Our softgels took what people loved about our full-spectrum oil, and put in a precisely-measured softgel capsule, easy to swallow and neutral in taste. The next year, we learned all we could about how to harness the power of CBD into an absorbable form that would work topically when rubbed directly onto targeted painful areas, and our Muscle and Joint Formula was born. Both of these CBDPure additions were a success (after many, many hours in the lab), and we are glad we did it. Both these products were developed after requests from customers, and became important members of the CBDPure family.

But we draw the line at gummies.

CBD Gummy

We aren’t going to make CBDPure gummies, not next year, not ever. You’ll never be able to buy a gummy with true CBDPure full-spectrum oil in it. It’s not because we didn’t consider it. We get requests nearly every single day, “Do you have gummies?“, “I’d really like to take your oil, but in a sweet , strawberry-mango-milkshake flavor“, “How come I can’t buy CBDPure gummies at my favorite health store?” Questions like these sent us to the drawing board to determine; Could we make a gummy product (yes, certainly) and would it be something we were proud enough to put the CBDPure name on (Nope, more about this later). Many meetings and discussions were held, chemists were talked to, gummies in all shapes, sizes, and flavors were sampled. In the end, we decided gummies was not a direction we wanted to go with CBDPure, and here’s why.

First, a quick cooking lesson that we had to learn, and every confectioner or candy-maker already knows. In order to make gummies, you need multiple ingredients; you can’t do it just with constituents of the hemp plant. You can’t just put hemp oil, cannabidiol, some terpenes, and some flavoring into a gummy “shape” and expect it to work. Every popular CBD gummy on the market contains at least a dozen ingredients, at least eleven of which, ARE NOT CBD. Now, for some brands, this isn’t a problem. They want to make a CBD product that tastes sweet, and is as approachable as something from the candy aisle, so throwing a bunch of corn syrup, Red #40, white sugar, a little bit of actual CBD, then some binders and fillers to make it all stick together and stay shelf-stable, is completely fine for them. For us, it’s not that simple however.

Our brand is CBDPure, and that name was not chosen by accident or by some corporate committee in an office conference room somewhere just because it did well with focus groups. Our name has Pure in it for a reason; our ingredients are just that. We use naturally-extracted hemp oil that has been minimally-processed to provide not only a large amount of cannabidiol, but also the other natural terpenes and cannabinoids that occur naturally in the hemp plant, and nothing artificial is added. Natural full-spectrum hemp oil doesn’t taste, look, or stick together like the typical gummy candy you see in every convenience store or candy shop, and there is a reason.

CBD Candy Gummies

Any so-called “CBD gummy” is much more candy and other artificial ingredients than it is actual CBD, or else it would dissolve into a smelly, sticky mess. To put CBD into a gummy at all, you have to, at best, mix it carefully with a bunch of other ingredients, with most of them made in a lab and not by a growing plant from the soil. The even cheaper method used by some companies is to take a standard candy gummy, and simply dip or roll it in cheap CBD isolate, a process called “sanding”. All those sour or sugary candies you had as a kid, with the sticky granules on the outside that made a mess of your hands and shirt? That is the same process by which adding CBD isolate (not even full-spectrum CBD) is done to these candy gummies. It’s an incredible inaccurate way to dose, since one candy could have more of the powdery sand on it then the next one. You can’t make full-spectrum oil into a powder that can be applied this way, so only less-effective isolate will work. In short, you can either have a true-to-nature CBD product just as it was grown in nature, or you can have a pseudo-CBD “gummy” that is sweet like children’s candy, but you can’t have both.

For us, the choice was clear. CBDPure is, and will always be, about purity and natural ingredients. For those looking for a real CBD product in its most natural form, we are glad to have you and hope you choose us for your health needs. For those looking for gummy candies in bright colors with exotic flavors like strawberry-banana and just the letters C-B-D on the outside of the bottle, maybe next to a cartoon bear? Good luck to you, the candy store is just down the road.

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CBD Laws in Delaware

Applicable Laws: 2018 Farm Bill, Delaware Senate Bill 266, Delaware Industrial Hemp Act

CBD Lab Test Delaware

Like many other states, Delaware established a hemp research pilot program in response to the federal government’s passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, classifying hemp and hemp-derived products as legal when they contained minimal THC levels. However, the Delaware law limits field size to 10 acres, and does not specifically allow for hemp to be grown as a “commercial crop”, so this uncertainty has resulted in very few farmers raising hemp within the state. The state does have a process for hemp processors to submit a request for a processing license, but it is unclear if any have been granted by the state, or where processors are expected to obtain their hemp crop. Currently. growers can only legally produce hemp in affiliation with Delaware State University or the Delaware Department of Agriculture. Nevertheless, Delaware does not criminalize possession or usage of hemp-related products like CBD, and CBD topical creams and ingestibles from out of state vendors are widely available within Delaware.

CBDPure Products that can be shipped to Delaware:

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CBD Laws in California

Applicable Laws:

2018 Farm Bill, Assembly Bill 228, Proposition 64, California Food and Agriculture Code 81000 (d), Sherman Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, Williamson Act

California has a complicated history with CBD products specifically, and cannabis and hemp in general. While California has now made recreational cannabis legal, they still have a few state-specific limitations on CBD products.

In 2016, Californians voted for and passed Proposition 64, which was supposed to legitimize the growing of industrial hemp as a commercial crop within the state. This law included a “right to farm” hemp, and sought to establishe agricultural safety standards, but no draft rules have been approved and passed as law in the years since. Laws remain murky about how hemp farmers are able to legally obtain hemp seeds from out of state, which are supposed to be certified by the state before planting. Many counties have established moratoriums preventing hemp farming, although Shasta County is one that specifically allows it within city limits.

Cbd Oil In California State
Cbd Lab Test in California

It is legal to sell, purchase, and possess any CBD product with less than 0.3% THC content. California law currently prohibits any retail restaurant or bar from adding CBD to any food or beverage, though there is no clarity whether individual users can do so in a retail establishment. California’s Sherman Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Law is cited for the state’s position that CBD is not allowed as a “food additive” but does not appear to be applied outside of restaurants and bars. Assembly Bill 228 attempted to remove this limitation, but was stuck in committee and never passed by the legislature. To date, no individuals have been prosecuted or cited for using CBD as a food supplement, but numerous bars and restaurants have been warned. Numerous retail stores carry a variety of ingestible and topical CBD products throughout the state, and out of state retailers from many states ship CBD products directly to California consumers, which represent one of the 3 largest CBD markets in the United States.

CBDPure Products that can be shipped to California:

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CBD Laws in Arkansas

Applicable Laws: 2018 Farm Bill, Ark. Stat. Ann. § 2-15-401, Arkansas Industrial Hemp Act

Availability of CBD products in Arkansas

CBD in Arkansas

Arkansas is one of the most CBD-friendly states in the union. Not only are most hemp-derived products, including fiber, seed, and clothing, allowed under Arkansas’ 2017 Industrial Hemp Act ,but CBD is specifically named as a “publicly marketed hemp product”, which means it is excluded from needing any license to process, sell, or purchase. Farmers need an easily-attainable hemp license to grow hemp from the Arkansas State Plant Board (ASPB), but processors and retailers of CBD products are exempt from any licensing requirement. Governor Hutchinson signed a bill decriminalizing all hemp-derived forms of cannabidiol in March 2019, further paving the way for retailers to sell all manner of CBD products in the state. Arkansas does require all CBD products, including those purchased online, to be under 0.3% THC in accordance with federal law. For any CBD Pure Hemp Oil that exceeds this, Arkansas residents can still access higher-THC oil, but they need to be over the age of 21 and have a medical cannabis ID card.

CBDPure Products that can be shipped to Arkansas:

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CBD Legality in Arizona

Applicable Laws: 2018 federal Agriculture Improvement Act, Arizona Senate Bill 1098

Arizona has taken a very permissive approach to hemp-derived CBD within the state. A 2014 court case held that CBD could be considered medically necessary, and thus must be made available, even without a prescription. Subsequent cases involving minors and foster children have affirmed that cannabidiol, can be possessed purchased, and used by all Arizona citizens, including minors.

CBD Oil In Arizona State
CBD in Arizona

Arizona was one of the first states to adopt a Hemp Research Pilot Program under the 2014 Farm Bill, allowing for both farmers and processors to grow and process hemp-derived products, so long as the total THC content was below the federal limit of 0.3%. Governor Ducey signed into law SB1098 in May of 2018 opening up the cultivation of industrial hemp by Arizona farmers, and and authorized the Arizona Department of Agriculture to issue cultivation licenses. There are currently no regulations or requirements for brick and mortar retailers governing the sale of federally-compliant CBD products within their retail establishments. Out of state CBD retailers are free to promote to and sell CBD products to Arizona customers online.

CBDPure Products that can be shipped to Arizona:

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CBDPure Softgels 750
 

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CBD Legality in Alaska

Relevant Laws:

2018 Agriculture Improvement Act, Alaska Statute 03.05.010 Alaska Statute 03.05.076 – 03.05.079, Alaska Statute 17.38.900

Buying CBD in Alaska

As one of the early states to legalize recreational marijuana, Alaska has long taken a permissive stance on all hemp and cannabis-related products. In 2018 with the passage of Senate Bill, Alaska was one of the first states to enact a hemp pilot program allowing the farming and processing of hemp-derived CBD, even prior to the federal passage of the 2018 Farm Bill.

Cbd Oil In Alaska State
Cbd Lab Test in Alaska

Retailers of CBD products are required to register as an industrial hemp retailer with the Alaskan Department of Natural Resources, and comply with certain labeling requirements for CBD products, but this currently only applies to in-state retail establishments. This rule for Alaskan retailers has actually been in effect since the 2014 Farm Bill, and was not changed by the passage of the 2018 Bill.

In addition to the federal limit that THC cannot exceed 0.3% THC by weight, Alaska imposes an additional limitation that no hemp product can contain more than 50 milligrams of total THC either. All CBDPure products comply with both the federal THC percentage limit and the Alaskan total THC per product limit.

CBDPure products that can be shipped to Alaska:

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CBD Legality in Alabama

Relevant Laws: 2018 Agriculture Improvement Act, Alabama Code 2.8-380 – 2-8-383, Alabama Code 20-2-2

Buying CBD in Alabama

While Alabama initially had some of the more stringent rules regulating CBD and Hemp Products in the early days, the state has taken numerous steps in recent years to make CBD more widely available to Alabamans. The Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries created an industrial hemp program in early 2019, allowing local farmers within the state to grow hemp as a crop, and processors and universities to work with and study hemp products. In June of 2019 the Alabama Senate passed, and Governor Kay Invey signed into law, SB225 allowing all pharmacies in the state to sell CBD products containing no more than 0.3% THC.

Cbd Oil In Alabama State
Cbd Lab Test

In addition, the State allows retail sales of hemp products from non-pharmacy stores, so long as they do not exceed 0.3% Tetrahydrocannabinol by weight. Technically, in-state brick and mortar retailers are supposed to have a hemp processor or handler license if they sell CBD from a retail store, but this isn’t strictly enforced. CBD customers within the state are able to order CBD products by mail from outside the state as well.

Nobody has been arrested for possession of CBD within the state, and it is legal for out-of-state retailers to ship into the State. It is generally considered low-risk to sell, purchase, or possess legally-complaint CBD products. CBDPure has shipped CBD products to Alabama customers since 2016 without issue.

CBDPure products available for delivery to Alabama residents:

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Pet Products

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